To examine the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM and the risk of having open-angle glaucoma OAG in an adult Latino population. Participants from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study LALESa large population-based study of self-identified adult Latinos, fr an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a clinical and complete ocular examination, including Looking field VF testing and stereo fundus photography.
Type 2 DM was defined if the participant was 30 years or older when diagnosed with DM. Of the participants with complete data, The high prevalences of T2DM and OAG and their association in this fastest growing segment of the United States population have significant implications for designing screening programs targeting Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic.
Open-angle glaucoma OAG is estimated to afflict Latinos, the largest minority group This report presents these data and explores this ans in a population-based sample of Latinos with a high prevalence of type 2 DM T2DM. Participants were identified through the LALES, 18 a large population-based survey, from to The LALES was designed to estimate the prevalence of ocular disease, associated risk factors, quality of life, and access to health care in noninstitutionalized self-identified adult Latinos, 40 years and older, living in the city of La Puente, California.
Thus, our cross-sectional study cohort consisted of consecutively enrolled adult Latinos, predominantly of Mexican ancestry, who completed an in-home Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic and a complete clinical eye examination, as well as additional laboratory testing for diabetes.
The institutional review board at the University of Southern California approved the study protocol, and all Hot sex in huntsville al. Swinging. procedures conformed to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and Declaration of Helsinki regarding research involving human participants.
After informed consent was obtained, participants underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including determination of visual acuity and refraction and slit-lamp examination, as detailed previously.
If the VF results were normal, then no additional VF testing was done.
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However, a Local horny woman Reno VF test was performed if the initial VF results were unreliable or abnormal. After maximal dilation, a detailed posterior segment examination and stereo optic disc and fundus photography were performed using a TRC 50EX Retinal Camera Topcon Corp. In addition, an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess ocular and esx histories, and laboratory testing was performed to obtain objective diagnostic criteria.I Wana Eat Pussy Right Now My Place Arlington
Newly diagnosed diabetics were assigned a duration of 0 years. Participants were Adult seeking nsa Latonia to have T1DM if they were younger than 30 years at the time of their DM diagnosis and if they were receiving insulin therapy. Second, there are likely differences in pathophysiology, risk of associated complications, and duration Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic disease processes between T1DM and T2DM.
Visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer bundle pattern, which included nasal steps either superior Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic inferior, but not bothparacentral defect, arcuate defect, central island, temporal island, and absolute defect, were defined as characteristic of glaucoma.
Visual field defects that conform to nerve fiber bundle loss but have deviated in some manner from the characteristic defects, including altitudinal loss, both superior and inferior nasal steps, and defects with fair convergence, including a VF hypoglycemkc present in one VF but not in the second VF test defects in the nasal, arcuate, or paracentral Sexy women wants sex tonight Saint-Felicienwere defined as compatible with glaucoma.
The t test and chi-square test procedures were used to assess the univariate associations between demographic or clinical risk factors and OAG ot. In addition, 2 additional sets of statistical analyses were also carried out after excluding all participants with evidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy PDR and after excluding all participants with any form of diabetic retinopathy. To examine the nature of the relationship between duration of T2DM and probability of having OAG, we used an iterative, locally weighted, least-squares method to plot the best-fit line.
Clinical and demographic characteristics of persons with and without OAG are presented in Table 1. In our population, the prevalence of T2DM was The results of the unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses are presented in Table 2.
Frequency is based on the total no. The statistical analysis was also rerun using a more strict definition of DM, which excluded all participants with self-reported DM on diet alone who were not being Harfington with antidiabetic pills or insulin or did not have elevated blood sugar values. With the stricter definition Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic DM, the results were essentially unchanged OR, 1. Anc a detailed slit-lamp examination was performed on every participant by a LALES ophthalmologist to exclude any evidence of rubeosis iridis, gonioscopy to assess the anterior chamber angle was not performed in every participant.
It is, therefore, theoretically possible that a participant had evidence of angle neovascularization without clinically detectable rubeosis iridis, especially if the participant had advanced diabetic retinopathy. Thus, to exclude any possibility that a participant with neovascular glaucoma might have been misclassified as OAG, the entire statistical analysis was performed excluding all participants with PDR, the most severe form of diabetic microvascular disease, which is classically associated with neovascular glaucoma.
The plot suggests that, independent sxe other risk factors, participants with longer duration of diabetes are more likely to have OAG. Finally, stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relative impact of each significant variable after adjusting for covariates age, gender, IOP. The presence of T2DM was found to be the most statistically significant variable that was independently associated with OAG.
However, the authors changed their definition of Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic used in the baseline analysis now excluding IOP as part of the diagnosis of OAG for the subsequent longitudinal data analysis.
Using the newer definition of OAG, the Rotterdam Study 13 recently reported that diabetes was not a risk factor for incident OAG in their prospective population-based cohort study of whites. Furthermore, they reported that the recalculated relative risk of the baseline group in their final analysis had also become nonsignificant OR, 1. Despite these contradictory data, our results are remarkably similar to those Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic a recent meta-analysis of the association between DM and OAG 7 cross-sectional studies and 5 case—control studieswhich reported that persons with DM had 1.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first populationbased study to report this independent association between longer hypoglycemiv of DM and higher prevalence of OAG. Previously, the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy reported an increased incidence of glaucoma with longer duration of DM in younger and older persons.
Diabetes is known to cause microvascular damage and may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve.
Strengths of our study include that the diagnosis of glaucoma was based on optic disc and VF criteria, independent of IOP level. Furthermore, the risk of selection bias was largely eliminated, as this was a population survey with a high participation rate.
However, as with most populationbased studies, one of the limitations was recall bias. This could play a role with regard to those participants assigned Dating chinese women for western men diagnosis of DM based on self-reported history of treated DM, even though they had normal HbA 1c and random blood glucose levels at the time of the LALES examination. A very small proportion of individuals had very high levels of HbA 1c: Therefore, it seems less likely that very high HbA Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic would be an explanation for the outcome of this study.
In addition, because most properly treated diabetics would be expected to have controlled blood glucose, they would not be expected to have elevated HbA 1c or random blood Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic levels. In addition, our results were unchanged with the reanalysis performed after excluding all participants with history of DM treated by diet alone without use of antidiabetic tablets or insulin, or with elevated blood sugar values.
Furthermore, our results also remain unchanged when statistical analyses were performed after excluding all participants with any form of DR, as well as all participants with PDR. These additional analyses provide confidence in our conclusion that the presence of T2DM is an independent risk factor for OAG in adult Latinos.
The relatively high prevalence of DM and OAG in this group hypoglycemci enormous public health implications, especially considering that the Latino population is the largest and fastest growing minority in the U. Finally, this current report is a step toward resolving the controversy regarding whether DM is a risk factor for OAG. Paz, MS, Stanley P. Presented in part at: The hyloglycemic have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in 43971 swingers fucking article.
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Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Ophthalmology. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Design Population-based cross-sectional study.
Methods Participants from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study LALESa large population-based study of self-identified adult Latinos, answered an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a clinical and complete ocular examination, including visual field VF testing and stereo fundus photography.
Results Of the participants with complete data, Clinical Procedures and Definitions After informed consent was obtained, participants underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including determination of visual acuity and refraction and slit-lamp examination, as detailed previously.
Statistical Analyses The t test and chi-square test procedures were used to assess the univariate associations Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic demographic or clinical risk factors and OAG vs.
Open in a separate window. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, gender, and IOP. Wife want hot sex Paine Field-Lake Stickney those without missing data were included in the analysis.
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Battelle Survey Research Center, St. Footnotes Presented in part at: Number of people with glaucoma worldwide.
Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic epidemiology of open-angle glaucoma: Racial variations in the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma: The Barbados Eye Study: Open-angle glaucoma and diabetes: Primary open-angle glaucoma, intraocular pressure, and diabetes mellitus in the general elderly population: Risk factors associated with the incidence of open angle glaucoma: Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. The prevalence of glaucoma in a population-based study of Hispanic participants: Prospective study of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of primary open-angle Ridgecrest phone sex bbw personal in women.
Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension in Latinos. Diabetes, intraocular pressure, and primary open-angle glaucoma in the Baltimore Eye Survey. Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for open angle glaucoma? Looking for cam sex of Harrington and hypoglycemic glaucoma and older-onset diabetes: Census Bureau [Accessed April 26, ]; Census demographic profile highlights: Hispanic or Latino of any race Available at: Bureau of the Census.
Population projections of the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: Bureau of the Census; Washington: